Steam Table Of water: for Liquid, Subcooled, Saturated, Superheated, Compressed

This article discusses about steam table of water. Before studying about steam table of water, we will first understand the meaning of steam table, steam and its properties.

As water has liquid form, its gaseous form is called as steam. When we heat water enough to a temperature of 100 degrees celsius, then the liquid temperature starts converting to gas or steam. Let us discuss about steam and steam tables further in this article.

What is steam?

When water is heated to a certain temperature, it starts getting converted to a different phase. The liquid form of water gets converted to gaseous phase called as steam.

The conversion starts taking place at saturation temperature where both the phases of water co-exist with each other. Slight increase in temperature results in steam formation and slight decrease in temperature results in formation of liquid water.

Types of steam

Usually steam contains particles of liquid particles, but at certain temperatures the liquid particles also evaporate to become steam. This gives rise to a new type of steam.

Let us discuss abut different types of steam in the section given below. The types of steam are-

  • Wet steam– As discussed above, steam contains particles of liquid water. The resulting steam and water mixture is called as wet steam.
  • Saturated steam– The steam existing at saturation temperature is called as saturated steam. At this temperature the phases of water/steam co exist with each other. Any increase or decrease in temperature results in superheated steam or wet steam respectively. In this state, the vapour-liquid equilibrium is established.
  • Superheated steam– After heating the steam beyond the saturation temperature, the resulting steam we get is called as superheated steam .This steam is pure steam and no liquid particles are present in superheated steam.

Uses of steam

The steam can be used in many industrial applications. These applications are mentioned below.

Uses of steam are-

  • Agricultural uses– In agriculture, a soil sterilizing method is used to sterilize the soil. This is done with the help of steam in open fields or green houses.
  • Atomization– Atomization of certain fuels used in burners is done with help of steam. Here the steam is used to separate the fuel mechanically.
  • Chemical uses– The chemical industry uses steam for humidifying, atomization, cleaning, sterilization etc purposes.
  • Mechanical uses– The steam engines use steam for running locomotives such as steam train. The mechanical energy is produced using the thermal energy produced while making the steam.
  • Concrete treatment– The curing of concrete is done with the help of steam. It improves the mechanical properties of concrete. It accelerates the compressive strength of concrete.
  • Cleaning– With the help of soot blowers, the team can be used for cleaning purposes. In boilers, steam is used to clean the boiler surface.
  • Sterilization– In various industries, the steam is used to sterilize the bottles so that any contaminants present can be cleaned and removed from the surface.
  • Electricity generation– The use of turbines in electricity generation is known to us. The freshly prepared steam is injected to the blades of turbine. These blades start rotating with the help of which the electricity is generated.

What is sub cooled water?

The term sub cool means that the liquid substance is existing below its normal boiling temperature. For water it is generally below 373 K or 100 degree celsius.

Below section provides a clear insight on steam table of sub cooled water. Subcooled water is used in expansion valve and compression safety.

Steam table for sub cooled water

Below given is the steam table for sub cooled water. The temperature and pressure discussed in this article are under certain range only. In actual the steam tables exist for a wide variety of values of pressure and temperatures.

steam table of water
Image: Table for Sub cooled water

What is saturated water?

The term saturation means that water is in a equilibrium state. The equilibrium occurs between the gaseous phase, that is, steam and the liquid state, that is, water.

Any increase in temperature will convert the vapour-liquid mixture to pure vapour and any decrease in temperature will convert the vapour-liquid mixture into liquid. It can be said that saturated state is a transition state of any liquid to gas or gas to liquid. The region under the saturation line comes under saturated region where liquid phase and vapour phase co exist and are in equilibrium with each other.

Steam table for saturated water

The steam table for saturated water is given in the table below. The steam table exists for a wider range of pressure and temperature values, here only a limited range is discussed.

Saturated water table
Image: Steam table for Saturated water

What is compressed water?

Compressed water and sub cooled water are same in nature. Compressed fluid means it is under a mechanical or thermodynamic condition that forces it to be below saturation conditions. The region situated at left hand side of the saturation line is called as the sub cooled region. The dryness fraction in this region is 0.

What is superheated water?

Superheated means that the substance is heated above its saturation temperature. A liquid in such a state will start vaporising completely leaving behind no liquid particles.

The enthalpy of superheated water is much higher than that of sub cooled water. In a Mollier diagram, the region situated at right hand side of the saturation line is called as the superheated region. The dryness fraction of the substance is 1 in this region.

Steam table for superheated water

Superheated water is also called as superheated steam. This steam has no liquid water particles in it. The steam table for compressed water also exists for a wide range of temperature and pressure values, here only a limited range is being discussed.

Compressed water
Image: Steam table for compressed water

Mollier diagram

A Mollier diagram is a graphical representation of various thermodynamic properties of steam/air such as temperature, pressure, enthalpy and moisture content.

The Mollier diagram is used by design engineers while designing a power plant, the data is used for checking properties of the air at different temperature and pressure values. Mollier diagram is a very convenient design tool for thermal engineers.