7 Easy Steps on OCL2 Lewis Structure, Hybridization (Solved)

Dichlorine monoxide (OCl2) has a central oxygen (O) atom with 6 valence electrons, bonded to two chlorine (Cl) atoms, each contributing 7 valence electrons. The Lewis structure shows two single O-Cl bonds and two lone pairs on oxygen, using 20 bonding electrons. The molecule adopts a bent geometry with a bond angle slightly less than 109.5°, due to lone pair-bond pair repulsion, typical of sp³ hybridization. The O-Cl bonds are polar due to the electronegativity difference (O: 3.44, Cl: 3.16), making the molecule polar overall. This structure affects its reactivity and properties, like being a reactive oxidizing agent.

ocl2 lewis structure

Outer shell electrons of the involved atoms are shown in the ocl2 lewis structure. These electrons effect the properties of the molecule. So this ocl2 lewis structure gives explanation about the hybridization, geometry, shape and other things of the molecule.

How to draw lewis structure for OCL2

OCl2 Lewis structure gives idea about how the molecular geometry should be.

In the ocl2 lewis structure, the atomic symbols of Oxygen atom is written as ‘O’ and for Chlorine atom it is written as ‘Cl’. The outer shell electrons of atoms are represents by dot symbols around the atoms in the dichlorine monoxide molecule.

Oxygen is in group number 16 and Chlorine is in group number 17 in the modern Periodic table. Oxygen atom electronic configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4. Chlorine atom electronic configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p5. So Oxygen atom has six negative charged particles and Chlorine atom has seven negative charged particles in the last electronic shell.

Hence the total number of the negative charged particles in the last orbit is {6 + (7×2)} = 20 in the molecule. So ten pair of electron take part in molecule formation.

Oxygen atom occupy center of the molecule. Two Chlorine atoms are in the both side of the central atom. Two electron pairs form sigma bonds (single bond) between the Oxygen atom and the two Chlorine atoms. Remaining eight electron pairs are unshared electrons.

The sigma (σ) bonding electron cloud between the Oxygen and Chlorine atoms in the OCl2 molecule is drawn by single straight line. Central atom Oxygen has four unshared electrons that is two pairs of electron cloud.

OCL2 lewis structure shape

VSEPR theory (Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory) can help to understand the facts about shape of ocl2 lewis structure.

Minimum repulsion between electron cloud of the last orbit, only can stabilize the structure of a molecule. So the outer shell electron cloud of OCl2 molecule spread over the molecule accordingly.

This theory assumes that, the electrons which don’t participate in bonding formation (lone pair) remain over the originate atom. These spread over more space than the electron cloud of bonding.

For this the repulsion between unshared electron cloud is greater than the electron cloud of bonding pair. Geometry of the molecular structure is disarranged by this.

After atomic orbital mixing up of the central atom Oxygen, new sp3 hybridized orbital occurs in the molecule. This hybridization of atomic orbital refers the tetrahedral molecular geometry. But central atom Oxygen atom has two pairs of unshared electrons.

For the repulsion, the structure of the OCl2 molecule becomes disturbed. To settle the steric repulsion, the angle between the two bonds decreases. Hence shape of the molecule changes to “V” liked shape.

OCL2 lewis structure formal charges

If a lewis dot structure has “0” formal charge, it is the structure which largely contribute in the molecule configuration.

Formal charge = (total number of last shell electrons –unshared electrons – (1/2× electrons in bonding pairs))

From the Periodic table, we know that number of last occupying shell electrons of Oxygen are six and Chlorine has seven electrons. Oxygen atom has four electrons which don’t involve in sigma (σ) bonding whereas each Chlorine atom has six that type of electrons.

Oxygen atom formal charge = {6- 4- (1/2×4)} = 0.

For each Chlorine atom formal charge = {7- 6- (1/2×2)} = 0.

As the atoms of the molecule have “0” (zero) formal charge, hence the formal charge of dichlorine monoxide (OCl2) is also Zero.

OCL2 lewis structure lone pairs

Lone pair contains the electrons which don’t involve in the bonding. These electron pair cloud remains over the parent nucleus.

In OCl2 lewis structure, there twenty outer shell electrons are present. Among these four electrons (two pairs) participate in bonding pair of O-Cl. Remaining all sixteen electrons are non-bonding electrons which are called lone pair.

From the orbital hybridization, we know that lone pair electron cloud of Oxygen atom belongs to the 2s and 2p orbital. Besides this each Chlorine atom has 3 pairs of electrons which don’t participate in bonding in the OCl2 molecule.

The shape of the molecule is dependent on these non- bonding electrons or lone pairs.

OCL2 hybridization

Hybridization is an important concept as it describes the geometry and shape of a molecule.

Atomic orbitals are fused together in hybridization. The new hybridized orbital has different energy, shape than it has before. In the dichlorine monoxide molecule, we consider the hybridization of the Oxygen atom. Hybridization will help to understand the molecular structure.

In the ground state energy level, Oxygen atom has two 2p orbital electrons which don’t pair up. So these electrons can form two sigma bonds with Chlorine atoms. Oxygen atom has four 2s and 2p orbital electrons which pair up. These electrons can’t participate in bonding.

After hybridization of the outer orbital, orbital overlapping becomes greater in bond formation. The new hybridized Oxygen orbital of OCl2 molecule is sp3 in nature. This sp3 Oxygen orbital is mixing up with the Chlorine 3p orbital to form molecule.

OCL2 lewis structure resonance

OCl2 lewis structure may have many resonance forms. The resonating electron dot structures form by delocalizing of the nonbonding electrons.

In dichlorine monoxide molecule, both the Oxygen and Chlorine atoms have pair of nonbonding electrons. The electron cloud can shift to produce resonating structure. Among these structures, which formal charge will be ‘zero’ that would be the greater contributing configuration.

Chlorine atom has vacant 3d orbital in the outer shell. So it can accept the negative charge from Oxygen atom easily. As central atom, Oxygen accepts electron so Pi (π) back bonding occurs i.e.2pπ (O) – 3dπ (Cl) in the molecule.

It means that the electron cloud transfer from Oxygen atom to the available vacant Chlorine atom 3d orbital. Hence partial pi (π) bonding generates in the molecule and we get the resonating structure of dichlorine monoxide molecule.

The resonating structure of the OCl2 molecule has a great effect on the bond angle and shape of the molecule.

ocl2 lewis structure
ocl2 lewis structure resonance

OCL2 lewis structure octet rule

The electronic stability of the orbital of a molecule can be described by this Octet rule. This rule states the maximum capability of electrons in outer orbit of atom.

All main group elements of the Periodic table favour eight electrons in the last energetic shell. So name of the rule is Octet rule. Only Hydrogen atom can’t maintain the rule. Its orbit contains only “s” orbital with maximum capability of two electrons.

Oxygen atom has six electrons in the 2s and 2p orbital. It tends to accept two more electrons. Chlorine atom has seven electrons in the 3s and 3p orbital, so it accepts one electron from donor atom to become stable like Argon gas.

In this way both Oxygen and Chlorine cover the outer most orbits with eight electrons. For this full filled orbit, the energy of the molecule lowers. The configuration of the molecule stabilizes.

OCL2 polar or nonpolar

Polarity is observed in a molecule if the molecule has polar bonds. Bond dipole moment (µ) can be calculated by multiplying the separated charge (δ) and distance between charges (r).

In the dichlorine monoxide molecule, electro-negativity of Oxygen (O) is 3.44 and that of Chlorine is 3.16 on the Pauling scale. An unequal charge separation occurs in the molecule for this difference between the electro-negativity of the atoms. For this a net dipole moment generates and OCl2 becomes polar molecule.

The electro-negativity of an atom is measured by the potential that how strongly it can pull the electron cloud of a covalent bond towards it. It is a direction vector component.

From the hybridization we know the Oxygen atom has two lone pair electron cloud with greater electro-negativity. It has a particular direction vector of dipole moment. Two Chlorine atoms have also specific direction of dipole moment.

From VSEPR theory we know that for steric repulsion, the shape becomes “V” liked. For the bent shape, a net direction vector of dipole moment remains. That’s why OCl2 is polar molecule.

ocl2 lewis structure
polarity of ocl2 lewis structure

OCL2 lewis structure bond angle

The angle between the bonding electron cloud is called bond angle which plays important role in the shape of the molecule.

As the molecule is sp3 hybridized, the theoretically calculated bond angle should be 109.5 ̊. But for the repulsions of electron cloud present in the molecule the bond angle becomes 110.9 ̊.

The unshared electrons of the Oxygen atom form the 2pπ (O) – 3dπ (Cl) back bonding. The steric repulsion between these electron cloud decreases. As a result of the formation of the partial pi bond (double bond), the repulsion between the bond pairs electron cloud increases.

As a result we get greater bond angle than the calculated one.

OCL2 lewis structure electron geometry

The VSEPR theory (Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory) can direct to find the geometry of OCl2 lewis structure.

From the hybridization, we know that the molecule has two bond pair and the central atom has two non-bonding electron pair cloud. So ocl2 molecule has tetrahedral geometry.

Geometry of a lewis structure is an ideal structure considered for the molecule. But actually it does not exist for facts like repulsion of the electron cloud in the molecule. The disturbed structure is called shape of the molecule.

Geometry is the arrangements of the bonding electron pairs in the three dimensional space. OCl2 is sp3 hybridized. For the four main electron pairs the ideal geometry will be tetrahedral.

OCL2 valence electrons

The electrons which occupy the outer orbit energetic state of an atom are called the valence electrons of that atom.

OCl2 lewis structure has twenty outer shell electrons. These electrons participate in the molecule formation and also responsible for the chemical properties of the molecule.

Oxygen has six electrons in the last energy shell and Chlorine atom has that of seven. So one Oxygen and two Chlorine atoms have twenty electrons in the outer orbits of the atoms. Hence the number of the valence electrons in the molecule is twenty.

OCL2 uses

OCl2 is an inorganic compound. It is soluble in water and as well as in the organic solvents.

The molecule has both Oxygen and Chlorine atom. For the presence of the Oxygen it is an oxidizer molecule. For the Chlorine atom it is a chlorinating agent also. It can be used in the chlorination process for the water purifying for drinking. It can be used in the ring or side- chain chlorination of any organic reaction.

The molecule has also explosive property. The molecule can undergo for the photochemical decomposition reaction.

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