Na2so4 Lewis Structure& Characteristics: 17 Complete Facts

The sodium salt of sulfuric acid is known as sodium sulphate. Let us study some facts about the Na2so4 lewis structure.

Na2SO4 is the chemical formula for sodium sulphate. The molecular weight of anhydrous Na2SO4 is 322 gm/mole, and that of the decahydrate molecule is 142 gm/mole. Natural brines and crystalline deposits found in Texas and California are used to manufacture natural sodium sulphate.

Na2SO4 can be produced using the Mannheim procedure, and the reaction is as follows: H2SO4 + 2NaCl → Na2SO4 + 2HCl. Let us discuss the facts and characteristics of the na2so4 lewis structure below.

How to draw na2so4 lewis structure?

Na2so4 lewis structure can be drawn as a simple electronic representation of bonds, electron pairs, and valence electrons. Here are the steps to follow.

Counting the total valence electrons

Count all the outermost electrons in the valence shell orbitals of the atoms present in Na2So4. Na has 1, S has 6, and O has six valence electrons. Total valence electrons in the na2so4 lewis structure are 32.

Choosing the central atom

Sulfur occupies the centre because it is less electronegative. The oxygen atom is encircled by sulphur. The ions in the na2so4 lewis structure are SO4-2 and Na2+

Forming the skeletal structure

Before the Lewis structure is finally built, the molecule is represented electronically by its skeletal system. Two electrons from Na to  SO4-2 ions are transferred. Drawings of Na and  SO4-2 along with their respective valence electron surroundings.

Drawing the final lewis dot structure

Na2So4 lewis structure has ionic as well as covalent. So Na2+ and SO4-2 are anionic and electrovalent bonds formed by covalent bonds. The octet is fulfilled for Na2+ and SO4-2. Below is the Na2so4 Lewis Dot structure.

na2so4 lewis structure
 Na2so4 lewis structure

Na2so4 valence electrons

The outermost electrons that are loosely linked to the nuclei and take part in forming bonds are known as valence electrons. Let us determine Na2so4 valence electrons.

  • The na2so4 lewis structure contains a total of 32 valence electrons. 
  • Each sodium atom has one electron.
  • Each oxygen atom includes six, i.e., four oxygen provides 24 electrons.
  • And Sulphur atom has six valence electrons.
  • Total valence electron =1*2+6*4+6 =32.

Na2so4 lewis structure octet rule

The octet rule explains that each atom must fulfil the 8 electrons in its valence shell to achieve core-shell stability. Let us see if Na2So4 follows the octet rule.

Na2So4 lewis structure satisfied the octet rule. This is due to Sulphur electronic configuration S= [Ne] 3s2,3p4. When we expand this, we get: S= [Ne]3s2, 3px2,3py1, 3pz1 and 3d0. If we divide, we obtain that the d orbitals are left unhybridised, leading to the extended orbitals.

Na2so4 lewis structure formal charge

The formal charge is the charge that a molecule would have if electrons were evenly distributed in each atom. Let us figure out the Na2so4 formal charge.

A formal charge of Na2SO4 = (Number of valence electrons in a free atom of the element) – (Number of unshared electrons on the atom) –½ (Number of bonds to the atom). Using the above formula, determine the formal charge.

  • The formal charge on Na =1-0-1 =0
  • The formal charge on S =6-0-6 =0
  • The formal charge on 2O =6-0-6 =0
  • The overall formal charge is zero on na2so4, a more stabilised structure.

Na2so4 lewis structure resonance

Resonance structure typically demonstrates an electron cloud delocalisation in a system. Let us analyse the Na2so4 resonance structure.

There are six resonant structures in Na2so4. Na2+ and SO4-2 ions are present in Na2so4, and SO4-2 exhibits six resonant configurations. Metal (Na+2) donates its electrons to the Sulphate anion. The SO4-2 is formed stabilised resonance structure. The image below is the Na2So4 resonance structure.

na2so4 lewis structure
Na2SO4 lewis resonance structure

Na2so4 lewis structure bond angle

Molecular bond angles differ depending on the angle formed between atoms surrounding them. Let us define the Na2so4 bond angle.

The bond angle of Na2So4 is 109.5°. The na2so4 lewis structure consists of two ionic units: Na+2 and SO4-2, with the sulphate ion defining the angle.

Na2so4 lewis structure shape

A molecule is structured, so its surrounding atoms don’t repel its central atom. Let us look more at the shape of Na2So4.

The shape of Na2so4 is tetrahedral because sulphate ions (SO4-2) are present. In Na2SO4, SO4-2  has a tetrahedral shape with a 109.5° angle to minimise their repulsive forces. Similarly, [Na(OH2)6]+ ions in the decahydrates crystals have octahedral molecular geometry. 

It is essential to point out that eight of the ten water molecules attached to these octahedra are attached to sodium, while two others, interstitial to sulphate, are hydrogen-bonded.

Na2so4 lewis structure lone pairs

The Lewis dots structure describes lone pairs that do not participate in bonding during hybridisation. Let us Calculate the lone pair of Na2SO4.

In the Na2So4 lewis structure the total lone pairs = 32-12 = 20 ie; 10 pairs. These lone pairs are present on the oxygen atom of sulphate ions(SO4-2). However, none of the valence electrons is localised and is all engaged in forming partial bonds.

Na2so4 hybridisation

Hybridisation is the formation of new hybrid orbitals by mixing orbitals within the same energy level in a molecule. Let us examine the hybridisation of the na2so4.

There is no hybridisation of Na2so4 due to its ionic nature. But it is sp3 because of its SO4-2 ions. The formula that is used to determine the hybridisation is given below.

  • H=1/2[V+X-C+A].
  • Total number of valence electrons on the central atom sulphur(V) =6
  • Number of monovalent atoms Sodium(X) =2
  • Charge on the cation Na+2(C) =+2
  • Charge on the anion SO4-2(A) =-2
  • H = 1/2[6 +2+2+(-2)].
  • Hybridization(H) = 4, indicating the sp3 hybridization due to SO4-2.

Is na2so4 a solid?

A solid-state is described when all molecules in a substance are closely packed and have a regular shape. Let us look into further detail.

Na2SO4 is a white solid in the form of a crystal. Inorganic chemical, commonly known as sulphate of soda, is connected to several hydrates. The mineral thenardite is also known as anhydrous sulphate, and the decahydrate Na2SO4.10H2O is also referred to as Glauber’s salt or mirabilis.

How is na2so4 solid?

An essential sodium component is sodium sulphate. Let us discuss why Na2so4 is in solid form.

Na2so4 is a white hygroscopic solid for the dry powder chemical. It has orthorhombic bipyramidal crystals as its crystalline structure. The particles are like crystalline powder and are essentially colourless or white crystals.

Is na2so4 soluble in water?

The degree of ion packing affects the hydration energy or solubility rate. Let us explain more in detail.

Na2so4 is most soluble in water and white solids in all forms.

  • At 0 ℃, the solubility in water is 4.76 g/100 gm of water.
  • At 25 ℃, the solubility in water is 28.1g/100 gm of water. 

Why is Na2so4 soluble in water?

In general, alkali metal ions and sulphate salts are water-soluble. Let us see if Na2so4 is soluble or not.

Na2SO4 is highly soluble in water because na2sO4 includes Na+ ions and sulphate ions. Na+ is alkali metal ions soluble in water, and sulphate ions are also soluble in water. In water, Na2so4 dissociates in ions and forms an aqueous solution.

Is na2so4 molecular?

The ionic or molecular character can be determined using the structure and sharing patterns. Let us see whether Na2so4 is molecular or not below.

Being an ionic compound, na2so4 is not molecular. Because sodium (Na+) and sulfate (SO4-2) ions combine to generate sodium sulphate. Two +1 sodium ions will be required to balance the one ion (SO4-2). As a result, the sodium sulphate formula will become Na2SO4.

Why is Na2so4 not molecular?

According to the ions or atoms they contain, molecules might be either ionic or molecular. Let us understand the reason for it.

The Na2so4 is not molecular but ionic because of the presence of opposite charge ions. But the sulphate anion is created via covalent interaction between oxygen and sulphur. These S-O bonds are polar covalent bonds because they have a bond polarity. 

The Na+ cations are attracted to SO42- by an ionic force. Sulphate is polyatomic ions that require opposite charges like Na+ that are both equivalent to form a bond.

Is na2so4 polar or nonpolar?

The polarity and non-polarity of molecules are determined by their geometry and structure patterns. Let us figure out what kind of nature Na2so4 possesses.

The na2so4 lewis structure is polar. This is because Na2so4 consists of two ions: positive (Na+) and negative(SO4-2), attracted towards each other and making an ionic bond.

Why is na2so4 polar?

A molecule develops an electric dipole moment due to polarity, which is the separation of electric charge called polarity. Let us find the reason for na2so4 being polar.

The na2so4 is polar due to opposite charge attraction. Metal combining with a nonmetal will generate an ionic bond, and this ionic attraction creates polarity. The polarity between Na+ and SO4-2 is higher.

Is na2so4 an acid or base?

In case an acid or base is dissolved in water, a conjugate base or acid is created. Let us look into Na2so4 lewis structure in more detail.

Na2so4 is neither acid nor base because it shows a neutralisation reaction between acid and base, like sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide base.

Why is na2so4 behave neutrally?

A neutralisation reaction is produced when a strong acid reacts with a strong base. Let us understand this in the case of na2so4.

Na2so4 lewis structure behaves as neutral. This is because sulphate ion is technically obtained from the strong acid, sulfuric acid; the neutralisation of such solutions follows this aspect.

Is na2so4 an electrolyte?

Compounds are known as electrolytes; when they ionise completely or partially when dissolved in water. Let us understand whether Na2so4 is an electrolyte or not.

Na2so4 is a strong electrolyte because when it is dissolved in water, it will lose Na+ and SO4-2 ions in the aqueous solution.

Why is na2so4 a strong electrolyte?

When an electric current is supplied between the electrodes in solution, the cations and anions migrate in opposite directions. Let us find the reason behind it.

The Na2so4 is a strong electrolyte because it generates electricity in a solution when dissolved in water. The number of ions generated in equilibrium determines the degree of dissociation of Na2so4 in solution. Due to electricity, it will break into ions.

Is na2so4 a salt?

Salt is a substance made up of cations and anions with an equal net charge. Let us get into further detail.

Na2so4 is a neutral salt produced when H2SO4 and NaOH react with water as a byproduct. This reaction is called neutralisation. It is a neutral metal-nonmetal salt reaction.

How Na2so4 is become a salt?

Sodium sulphate is basically an inorganic neutral salt. Let us examine why Na2so4 is a salt.

Na2so4 is a salt because it is created when a strong acid and a strong base react. It will follow two-step, as shown below.

  • H2SO4 (Strong acid) + NaOH(Strong base) → Na2SO4(Neutral salt) + H2O(Water)
  • This neutral salt solution has a pH value of 7.

Is na2so4 ionic or covalent?

Electrostatic interactions bind ions together to form an ionic molecule. Let us get into further detail.

Na2so4 is an ionic compound containing Na+ and SO4-2  ions in their crystal lattices. Na+ transfer its one electrons to the SO4-2  ions to make itself stable. SO4-2 consist of S, which has an empty d orbital and expands its octet, thus containing more than eight electrons and stabilising the structure.

Why is na2so4 ionic?

The formula unit for ionic compounds is Na2SO4. Let us look at it in detail.

Na2so4 is an ionic character because the ions in sodium sulphate are electrostatically bonded. The Na+ ion in Na2so4 has just one charge. In this case, electroneutrality is attained by replacing each SO4-2 ion with two Na+ ions.


Na2SO4 can be produced using the Mannheim procedure. In water, Na2so4 dissociates in ions and forms an aqueous solution. The dry powder of Na2so4 has orthorhombic bipyramidal crystals as its crystalline structure.

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