# Is Vanadium Magnetic? 5 Facts You Should Know!

Vanadium is a silver-grey coloured transition metal of atomic number 23 which is very hard. Let us know whether vanadium is magnetic or not.

Vanadium is paramagnetic in nature with a molar magnetic susceptibility of 255 x 10-6 cm3/mol at the temperature of 298 K. Vanadium is attracted weakly by the externally applied magnetic fields and forms internal and induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied field,making it paramagnetic.

Let us discuss here important facts about vanadium like the magnetic moment of vanadium,magnetic properties of vanadium and many more facts like the facts stated before.

## Vanadium magnetic moment

Magnetic moment can be defined as the orientation or strength that a magnet possesses which produces a magnetic field. Let us discuss the magnetic moment of vanadium.

Magnetic moment of vanadium is 1.73 BM. The calculation is written below: vanadium has only one unpaired electron in the oxidation state of +4.

The formula for magnetic moment is = [n(n+2)]^(½)

= [1×3]^(½)

= 1.73 BM.

[Here n signifies the number of unpaired electrons in the valence shell of an element]

The electronic configuration of vanadium is [Ar]4s23d1. From the electronic configuration it is clear that there is only one unpaired electron in the outermost orbit of vanadium. Thus vanadium shows the paramagnetic behaviour.

## Vanadium magnetic properties

Vanadium is a transition metal of atomic number 23 and period 4. Let us discuss the magnetic properties of vanadium.

• Due to the presence of one unpaired electron in the outermost orbit of vanadium the net dipole moment of vanadium is not zero. This satisfies the condition of being a paramagnetic material.
• The atoms of vanadium possess a permanent dipole moment due to the unpaired spin.
• Vanadium gets attracted very weakly to that field when an external magnetic field is applied.
• Vanadium starts moving from the weak field region to the strong field region if the externally applied magnetic field is non uniform in nature .
• The vanadium rod lies parallel to the field as the field is strongest near the poles .
• Liquid vanadium moves up in the arms of a U shaped tube that is in between the poles of a magnet.
• Vanadium has a very small and positive value of intensity of magnetisation which is directly proportional to the value of the magnetizing field.
• The value of magnetic susceptibility of vanadium lies in the range of 5.81 x 10-6 to 5.89 x 10-6 e.m.u/g in the temperature range of 293 -20 K. this small but positive value of magnetic susceptibility depicts that it is paramagnetic in nature.
• The relative permeability of vanadium is greater than 1 and the internal field of vanadium is slightly greater than the external field applied on it.
• Magnetic field lines inside vanadium are comparatively denser than the outside of vanadium as similar as other paramagnetic substances.
• Magnetization of vanadium is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature according to the curie’s law.
• Magnetic dipole moment of vanadium is small and parallel to the magnetizing field.

## Vanadium oxide magnetic

Vanadium oxide is an inorganic compound of chemical formula VO2 and of dark blue colour. It acts as an amphoteric oxide. Let us know if vanadium oxide is magnetic.

Vanadium dioxide behaves as a paramagnetic material in both the phases of semiconductor as well as metallic phase. The magnetic properties of vanadium dioxide vary with the variation of oxygen content and the doping with iron.

### a. Vanadium dioxide magnetic properties

Vanadium dioxide has a molar mass of 82.94 g/mol and a density of 4.57 g/cm3. The magnetic properties of vanadium oxide are:

• The magnetic susceptibility of vanadium dioxide is small but positive. It is isotropic within +/- 3%.
• At a high temperature of 100 °C and at the particular frequency of 2.5 GHz the relative permittivity of vanadium dioxide is nearly 4.5 x 104.
• Magnetic dipole moment of the vanadium dioxide is small and it is parallel to the magnetizing field.
• In the temperature range of 100 K to 250 K vanadium dioxide follows the curie’s law as it behaves as a paramagnetic substance in this range of temperature.
• When an external magnetic field is applied the vanadium dioxide gets attracted to the applied field but the attraction is very weak in nature.

### b. Vanadium oxide magnetic susceptibility

The degree to which a material can be magnetized in the influence of an external field is known as its magnetic susceptibility. Let us focus on magnetic susceptibility of vanadium oxide.

Magnetic susceptibility of vanadium oxide is 99 x 10-6 cm3/mol. As it is a paramagnetic material it keeps aligned to the applied external magnetic field and is attracted to the regions where the field intensity is higher than the other regions.

Magnetic susceptibility of vanadium oxide has a huge dependance upon the temperature as it varies inversely with respect to the absolute temperature of the surrounding according to the Curie’s law.

## Nickel vanadium magnetic

In the nickel-vanadium alloy nickel is present approximately 92.425% and vanadium is present approximately 6.7-7.5%. Let us have a look whether nickel-vanadium is magnetic or not.

Nickel – vanadium alloy is magnetic in nature as there is a high percentage of nickel present in this alloy. Nickel is ferromagnetic in nature which signifies that it has strong magnetic properties. Similarly vanadium has weak magnetism as it is paramagnetic in nature.

Vanadium is combined with nickel in order to increase the hardness of the surface by the process of nitriding and this alloy has extensive use in the magnetic application as well as semiconductor applications.

#### Conclusion

This article is based upon the 5 important facts related to the magnetic properties of vanadium. It consists facts like both vanadium and vanadium oxide are paramagnetic in nature,both of them has weak attraction towards the applied magnetic field,nickel-vanadium alloy is magnetic in nature and many more facts like these facts.