15 Facts on HCl + NaHCO3: What, How To Balance & FAQs

The process of reactants getting converted to two or more different products is called a chemical reaction. Let us take a detailed look on how HCl reacts with NaHCO3 .

Hydrogen Chloride is classified as a strong acid, which when reacts with Sodium Bicarbonate which is actually a weak base will from a salt and water will be released. Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a crystalline solid with monoclinic crystalline structure, but it naturally exits in powder form.

We will discuss the important mechanisms of the reaction, like redox, precipitation, type of reaction, intermolecular forces, balancing of chemical equation etc., in detail.

What is the product of HCl and NaHCO3

HCl and NaHCO3 react to form Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) is released. The chemical equation for the reaction is as follows;

HCl + NaHCO3 = NaCl + H2O + CO2.

What type of reaction is HCl and NaHCO3

HCl + NaHCO3 is a neutralization reaction, where acid (HCl) and base (NaHCO3) react to form salt and water.

HCl (aq.) + NaHCO3 (aq.) = NaCl (aq.) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

How to balance HCl and NaHCO3

Following are the steps involved in balancing the chemical equation:

  • Step 1: Write the general chemical equation:
  • HCl + NaHCO3 = NaCl + H2O + CO2.
  • Step 2: Now, as we can see, the atoms on the reactant side are the same as those on the product side.
  • That is why there is no need to balance the given chemical equation as it is already balanced.

HCl and NaHCO3 titration

NaHCO3 is titrated against HCl to determine the unknown concentration of NaHCO3 in the given solution. The following steps are involved in the titration of HCl and NaHCO3.

Apparatus Used:

We need,

  • Burette
  • Burette holder
  • Beaker
  • Conical flask
  • Volumetric flask


The best indicator of the considered titration is Methyl Orange.


  • Wash, rinse and fill the burette with NaHCO3 solution and note the initial reading of the burette.
  • Pipette out 10 mL of HCl solution and transfer it into a washed titration flask.
  • Add 2-3 drops of methyl orange indicator into the titration flask.
  • Now start adding sodium bicarbonate solution to the titration flask dropwise till the colour changes to light pink.
  • Note the final reading of the burette and find the volume of sodium bicarbonate solution used to neutralize the HCl solution.
  • Repeat the experiment to get more readings.
  • The unknown concentration can be found using formula S1V1 = S2V2.

HCl and NaHCO3 net ionic equation

The net ionic equation is:

HCO3(aq.) + H+ (aq.) = CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

HCl and NaHCO3 conjugate pair

In this reaction,

HCl (aq.) + NaHCO3 (aq.) = NaCl (aq.) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

  • Conjugate pair of HCl = Cl
  • Conjugate pair of H2O = OH
  • Conjugate pair of NaHCO3 = HCO3
  • There is no conjugate pair available for NaCl

HCl and NaHCO3 intermolecular forces

The intermolecular forces in the given reaction are listed as follows-

HCl (aq.) + NaHCO3 (aq.) = NaCl (aq.) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

ReactantsIntermolecular forcesProductsIntermolecular Forces
1. Dipole-dipole interaction
2. London Dispersion forces
NaCl1. London-dipole force
2. Dipole-induced-dipole interaction

3. Ionic bondH2O1. Hydrogen bonding
2. London Dispersion forces
HCl and NaHCO3 intermolecular forces

HCl and NaHCO3 reaction enthalpy

HCl + NaHCO3 reaction enthalpy is +28.5 kJ/mol. Enthalpy information for the reactants and products involved are as follows:

  • Enthalpy of formation for reactant HCl: -393.509 kJ/mol
  • Enthalpy of formation for reactant NaHCO3: -950.8 kJ/mol
  • Enthalpy of formation for product NaCl: -411.15 kJ/mol
  • Enthalpy of formation for product H2O: -285.8 kJ/mol
  • Enthalpy of formation for product CO2: -167.16 kJ/mol

Thus, ΔfH (Enthalpy of reaction) = Sum of standard enthalpy of formation of products – sum of standard enthalpy of formation of reactants.

ΔfH = +28.5 kJ/mol.

Is HCl and NaHCO3 a buffer solution

HCl + NaHCO3 is not a buffer solution because salts cannot be regarded as a buffer, as they easily dissociate into ions which makes them unable to maintain pH of the solution.

Is HCl and NaHCO3 a complete reaction

HCl + NaHCO3 is a complete reaction where HCl and NaHCO3 completely react to form products like CO2, H2O and NaCl with no further process left.

Is HCl and NaHCO3 an exothermic or endothermic reaction

HCl and NaHCO3 reaction is endothermic reaction as the enthalpy of the reaction is positive, which means increasing the temperature would shift the equilibrium towards the right side.

Is HCl and NaHCO3 a redox reaction

HCl and NaHCO3 reaction cannot be termed as a redox reaction because there is no change in oxidation state on the reactant and product side.

Is HCl and NaHCO3 a precipitation reaction

HCl + NaHCO3 is not a precipitation reaction because no insoluble product is formed after the completion of the reaction.

Is HCl and NaHCO3 reversible or irreversible reaction

HCl + NaHCO3 reaction is irreversible reaction as the reactants are completely consumed and the above reaction cannot be reversed unless some special conditions are applied.

Is HCl and NaHCO3 displacement reaction

HCl + NaHCO3 reaction is a double-displacement reaction.

  • Sodium atom displaces hydrogen from hydrogen chloride to form H2CO3.
  • HCl + NaHCO3 = NaCl + H2CO3.


The reaction of HCl and NaHCO3 neutralizes each other producing salt and water with carbon dioxide as a side product. The oxidation states of reactants and products remain unchanged. It is a two-step reaction in which H2CO3, initially formed decomposes into water and carbon dioxide.