15 Facts on HCl + Li2CO3: What, How To Balance & FAQs

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is an inorganic compound present in liquid state and Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is a white powder which is a solid . Let us discuss HCl + Li2CO3 reactions.  

HCl is a colorless acid, known by another name muriatic acid, and is one of the important acids used by chemists as it is a strong acid. Li2CO3 is used for medicinal purposes and the processing of metal oxides as well because it is a strong base.

In the article, we will talk about the reaction of HCl + Li2CO3 with their products, conjugate pairs, type of reaction, etc in a detailed explanation.

What is the product of HCl and Li2CO3

The final products are Lithium Chloride and Carbon dioxide gas, Li2CO3 is a salt of carbonate and releases CO2 gas when reacting with acid.

HCl + Li2CO3 = LiCl + CO2+ HOH

What type of reaction is HCl + Li2CO3

The reaction, HCl + Li2CO3 is a neutralization reaction because the product is, LiCl which is a salt or metal ion salt as a complete chemical compound, and CO2 gas evaporates in the air after neutralizing all the ions in the reaction.

How to balance HCl + Li2CO3

There are following steps to balance a reaction :-

  • As the coefficients are 5 label them as A, B, C, D, and E.
  • A HCl + B Li2CO3 = C LiCl + D CO2 +  E HOH
  • Modify the equation with a suitable number as already labeled as the alphabet.
    A = E = H , B = C = Li , C = A = Cl , D = B = C , E = B = O
  • Multiply the atoms of the equation A = E = 2, B = C = 2 , C = A = 1 , D = B = 1 , E = B = 1
  • Reduce the result of the lowest integer number so, the balanced equation is-

2HCl +  Li2CO3 = 2 LiCl +  CO2 +   HOH

HCl + Li2CO3 titration

Apparatus required –

  • Burette
  • Pipette
  • Conical flask
  • Burette stand
  • Funnel
  • Measuring flask
  • Solution oh HCl and Li2CO3
  • Watch glass

Indicator used-

Methyl orange will be used as an indicator.


  • Filling the burette with the standard solution of Li2CO3 till the last point with the help of a funnel.
  • Sucking 10 ml of HCl with the help of a pipette out in a conical flask and placing it under a burette allow Li2CO3 into the flask dropwise and methyl blue is added until the color changes to light pink.
  • Follow the process until 2 congruent readings and apply the formula to calculate the concentration of the unknown solution.

HCl + Li2CO3 net ionic equation

  • First, write the complete reaction with their respective states

HCl(l) + Li2CO3(s) = 2 LiCl(s) +  CO2(g) +   HOH(l)

  • Now, split the atoms into cations and anions

H+ + Cl + Li+ + CO3- = Li+ + Cl + CO2 + HOH

  • The remaining HOH can dissociate into H+ and OH

So, the final net ionic equation is-

H+ + Cl + Li+ + CO-3 = Li+ + Cl + CO2 + H+ + OH

HCl + Li2CO3 conjugate pairs

HCl + Li2CO3 do not form any conjugate pairs. Being a strong acid HCl dissociates completely and its conjugate base will be Cl whereas Li2CO3 is a carbonate salt, and librates CO2 gas.

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Conjugate acid-base pairs

HCl and Li2CO3 intermolecular forces

  • Being a strong acid HCl atom combines with an ionic bond and has intermolecular forces and dipole-dipole interactions with the London dispersion force.
  • Li2CO3 is a salt of carbonate having a weak van der Waal of attraction within the atoms.

HCl + Li2CO3 reaction enthalpy

The reaction enthalpy is zero as, the enthalpy of the formation of HCl is – 58 KJ/mol and Li2CO3 is – 563.15 KJ/mol but at last all the ions get neutralize to form a salt as a product so the final reaction enthalpy becomes zero.

Is HCl +Li2CO3 a buffer solution

Is HCl + Li2CO3 not a buffer solution The pH of a buffer solution must be more than 7 but, in the reaction of HCl + Li2CO3 pH slightly shifts to an acidic medium as the concentration of HCl increases with time.

Is HCl + Li2CO3 a complete reaction

 HCl + Li2CO3 is a complete reaction.

Is HCl + Li2CO3 an exothermic or endothermic reaction

HCl + Li2CO3 is an exothermic reaction. In the reaction, the solution heats up as HCl is added to Li2CO3 and releasing CO2 gas, and releasing a good amount of energy because of the dissociation of bonds.

Is HCl + Li2CO3 a redox reaction

HCl +Li2CO3 is not a redox reaction. The dissociation of bonds in HCl and Li2CO3 takes place in the aqueous medium and no exchange or transfer of electrons or protons is there and it is the neutralizing of the charges of atoms.

Is HCl + Li2CO3 a precipitation reaction

HCl + Li2CO3 is not a precipitation reaction. The product is LiCl which is highly soluble in water and CO2 gas evolved in the reaction and evaporated hence, no precipitation of any salt or chemical compounds takes place.

Is HCl + Li2CO3 reversible or irreversible reaction

HCl + Li2CO3 is an irreversible reaction. The final product of the reaction is the LiCl salt which is a complete compound and highly soluble in water therefore, cannot be reversed as a reactant or in the previous form.

Is HCl + Li2CO3 displacement reaction

HCl + Li2CO3 is not a displacement reaction. The exchange of ions of HCl and Li2CO3 forms a salt of LiCl salt without displacing any other chemical compound or atoms at the end of the reaction.


The chemical compound HCl is majorly used for the analysis of many salts with acid and bases whereas, Li2CO3 is used in lithium-ion batteries and contributes a small composition to glass making use for ovenware.