H2O2 Lewis Structure,Characteristics:51 Complete Quick Facts

h2o2 lewis structure and all other facts are discussed in this article.

H2O2 is the chemical formula of Hydrogen peroxide. It has a structural formula of HOOH. Its IUPAC name is dihydrogen dioxide. The simplest compound of peroxo anion is H2O2is pale blue in colour, however; In its purest form it is colourless. The probability H2O2 occurring nature is pretty rare. It can exist in liquid and gas form.

H2O2 is odourless on nature. H2O2 and water have similar physical properties. It can be found in very low concentrations in the environment. It has a melting point of -0.43°C.It has a boiling point of 150.2°C.It has a density of 1.44 g/ cm3.It has a dielectric constant of -70.7.
It is a weak acid, it’s acidity ranges from 4.3-5.1 pH.

 H2O2 is a major industrial chemical that is produced one half a million tons per year. Rocket fuel was the original use of H2O2.It is used in the healthcare industry due to its property to clean and disinfect. It is a commonly used ingredient in bleaches and dyes. Irritation of the eyes, throat, skin and respiratory tract are the results of exposure to H2O2.

Lewis Structure of H2O2

Any compound’s Lewis structure is a straightforward illustration of the bonds formed between and among the atoms’ electrons. Bonds and electrons are denoted in this approach by lines and dots, respectively.

The following steps can be used to demonstrate hydrogen peroxide’s Lewis structure.

  • The total number of valence electrons in hydrogen peroxide must first be determined. In hydrogen we know one electron and oxygen it’s six. So the total is 14.
  • The symbols for hydrogen and oxygen must be written in this stage. Here the two oxygen atom written first with two hydrogen atoms on the both sides.
  • Distribute its valence electrons and then make single bonds between each atoms.
Lewis Structure of H2O2
  • Calculate the formal charge of each atoms and if it is zero then it will be the stable Lewis structure. This is hydrogen peroxide’s most stable Lewis structure since each atom’s charge is zero in this instance.

H2O2 Lewis structure Octet Rule

Octet rule states that the outer electrons in the valence shell of an atom should be eight for attaining it’s stable state. Both of the oxygen atoms in this instance of hydrogen peroxide have eight electrons in their valence shells after forming a connection.

Hydrogen need only two electrons for its stable existence. Here when hydrogen makes bond with oxygen then it also get two electrons in the valence shell. So here oxygen obeys octet rule.

Octet Rule in H2O2

H2O2 Lewis structure Resonance

There is no resonance structure observed for hydrogen peroxide. Resonance actually takes place where there is double bond present. Since here there is no double bond resonance cant took place. Similarly lone pairs present with oxygen can take part in resonance but it will then completely destroy its structure, so hydrogen peroxide don’t take part in resonance.

H2O2 Lewis structure Formal charge

The equation for calculating the formal charge of any atom is

Formal Charge = Valence electrons – No. of non- bonding electrons –

                               No. of bonds

We all know that formal charge is the charge assigned to an atom when it makes bond with other atoms.

Formal charge of hydrogen = 1-0-1=0
Formal charge of oxygen = 6-4-2 = 0

H2O2 Valence Electrons

The total number of outer electrons or valence electrons present in the outer or valence shell of atoms in hydrogen peroxide is 14.

H2O2  Lone Pairs

In hydrogen peroxide there is lone pairs associated with oxygen only. Two oxygen atoms has four lone pairs in total.

H2O2 Lewis structure Shape and Bond Angle

Hydrogen peroxide contains two hydrogen atoms joined with two oxygen. The shape of the molecule is found to be bent or skewed shape due to the repulsion of lone pairs in oxygen atoms. It’s structure resembles like opened book structure with bond angle 94.80 and bond length 95pm.

Shape and Angle of H2O2 from Wikimedia

H2O2 Hybridisation

Hydrogen peroxide follows sp3 hybridization. The hybridisation of any molecule can be found through finding it’s steric number.

Steric number = No. Of atoms attached to central atom + No. of lone


With two bonds and two lone pairs, oxygen is the main atom in this structure. So Steric Number = 2+2 = 4

Sp3 orbitals are pointed in the direction of a tetrahedron’s corners, but because oxygen atoms contain two lone pairs, they take on the shape of a bent H2O molecule. So it gives a open structure to hydrogen peroxide.

Is H2O2  Linear ?

Hydrogen peroxide is non- linear molecule. Its electronic geometry resembles with tetrahedron while in accordance with molecular geometry it has a bent shape.

Is H2O2 Polar or Non – Polar ?

Polar molecules are described as molecules having a constant dipole moment. When we look into the structure of hydrogen peroxide the oxygen – oxygen bond is non-polar in nature. So there is no dipole moment in that bond.

But there is polar character in between the oxygen and hydrogen bonds. The electronegativity of oxygen and hydrogen is 3.44 and 2.20 respectively. So there will be dipole moment in between those atoms. So hydrogen peroxide is a polar molecule with dipole moment 2.26 D.

Is H2OSolubility

Solubility is the ability of the substance to dissolve a particular solvent at a given fixed temperature. H2O2 is soluble in ether, ethanol and water.

Is H2OSoluble in Water ?

Hydrogen peroxide is found to be soluble in water. It gets soluble in water to form solution with no colour. Actually there occurs hydrogen bonding in between hydrogen peroxide and water molecules.

Is H2OParamagnetic or Diamagnetic ?

Hydrogen Peroxide is a diamagnetic substance. When placed in a magnetic field, diamagnetic material has the capacity to acquire an induced magnetic moment and has a propensity to be ejected from an inhomogeneous field. Diamagnetic substance always has paired electrons associated with it. Here all the electrons are paired so hydrogen peroxide is diamagnetic substance.

Is H2OElectrolyte ?

Hydrogen peroxide is an electrolyte.

Is H2OStrong Electrolyte ?

Hydrogen peroxide is a weak electrolyte, and the electrical conductivity of its solutions is comparable to that of water. Therefore hydrogen peroxide is not a strong electrolyte.

Is H2OAcidic or Basic ?

Hydrogen peroxide is found to be an acid. An acid is a substance which donates H+ ions when dissolved in water and shows a pH value below seven. It is acidic because it gives out Hydrogen when in the solution and easily accepts unshared electrons.

Is H2OStrong Acid ?

Hydrogen peroxide is an acid but it is weak in acidic nature. It forms hydro peroxide or peroxide salts with many metals.

 Is H2OPeroxide ?

A peroxide is a compound with two oxygen atoms attached together in its molecule or as O2 anion. Hydrogen peroxide is a simplest peroxide. It’s a compound with O-O single bond which decomposes slowly when open to light. It also gets rapidly react with organic and reactive compounds.

Is H2OAqueous ?

Hydrogen peroxide is a substance which is aqueous in nature.

Is H2OArrhenius Acid ?

Hydrogen peroxide is a Arrhenius acid. According to the Arrhenius notion, an acid is a chemical that, when dissolved in water, donates H+ ions. So the presence of Arrhenius acid in aqueous solution increase the concentration of protons or H+ ions.

Hydrogen peroxide is an Arrhenius acid which when reacts with water it donates it’s hydrogen ion and water accepts that proton. So water is a base and hydrogen peroxide acts as acid here.

Is H2OLewis Acid ?

Hydrogen peroxide is a Lewis base. In accordance with Lewis concept a Lewis base is a compound or substance which can donate electron pairs to other atoms. Due to the presence of lone pairs in oxygen it can donate it’s electrons to form bond with electron acceptors.

 Is H2O2 is better oxidant than water ?

Water is not as effective as an oxidant like hydrogen peroxide. It can be used as a better oxidising agent due to following reasons.

  • It oxidises acidified potassium iodide to iodine with blue colour in starch solution but water doesn’t do so.
  • Water has never undergone the process that turns black lead sulphide into white lead sulphate that hydrogen peroxide does.

Water is found to be weak as an oxidising and reducing agent. But there are so many substances which can reduce or oxidise it. So it is commonly used as a good solvent for redox reactions. The additional oxygen atom in hydrogen peroxide compared to the structure of water is what gives it its oxidising activity.

Is H2O2 Ligand ?

Hydrogen peroxide is a poor ligand. It’s coordination with metals didn’t found or detect yet.

Is H2O2 Liquid ?

Hydrogen peroxide is a liquid with a pale blue colour that has a little bit greater viscosity than water.

Is H2O2 Stable ?

Hydrogen peroxide is a stable compound under normal conditions. But sometimes it will undergo abnormal decomposition. But it can be easily handled by properly designed storage and handling systems. Usually a large amount of heat and oxygen are generated during its decomposition.

Is H2ONeutral ?

Hydrogen peroxide is not a neutral substance. It is a dibasic acid which can donate two protons.

Is H2OOrganic or Not ?

Hydrogen peroxide is an organic peroxide.

Is H2OCorrosive ?

Hydrogen peroxide being itself not corrosive but when comes in contact with metals, alloys and Ti  it will corrode. It harms the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes when consumed in large amounts.

Oxygen present in hydrogen peroxide imparts corrosive property when comes in contact with ferrous metals. Sometimes hydrogen peroxide is used as a corrosion inhibitor on carbon steel.

Is H2OConductive ?

Hydrogen peroxide is non- conductive substance. This is because of its weak electrolytic nature.

 Is H2O2 Exothermic in Nature ?

Hydrogen peroxide release heat when it undergo decomposition or dissociation reaction. So in that cases it is found to be exothermic. Exothermic substances release heat energy when they undergo any kind of reaction.

Hydrogen Bonding in H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide makes hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds can form in two different ways, both intra molecular and intermolecular. In intermolecular hydrogen bonding the electronegative atom of one compound makes bond with hydrogen of another compound.

But in intra molecular hydrogen bonding the electronegative atom and hydrogen atom are present in same compound. Hydrogen peroxide makes intermolecular hydrogen bonds with other atoms. The electronegative oxygen can make two bonds with two hydrogen atoms and hydrogen can make one bond with other oxygen. .

Therefore, hydrogen peroxide has a total intermolecular hydrogen bonding capacity of six.

Is H2OFree Radical ?

Hydrogen peroxide is not a free radical. However, it can be employed to produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals.

Did Dipole – Dipole Interaction exist in H2O2 ?

Yes, there is strong dipole- dipole interactions seen in between hydrogen peroxide molecule. These interactions arrives due to the presence of electronegative oxygen atom and hydrogen atom present in them.

Boiling point of H2O2

Boiling point is the temperature required to turn a substance from liquid state to vapour state. Boiling point of  Hydrogen peroxide is 150.2°C.

Is H2O2 Oxidising or Reducing Agent ?

Hydrogen peroxide can be used as both oxidising and a reducing agent. This is because H2O2 can reduce itself to H2O; thus acting as a oxidising agent. On the other hand, it can also get oxidised to O2; thus acting as a reducing agent.

 Is H2Oa Bleaching Agent ?

One of the most widely used bleaching agents is Hydrogen peroxide. As an oxidising agent, it has the ability to operate as a bleaching agent. It oxidises colouring matter by nascent oxygen.

Storage of H2O2

 Hydrogen peroxide is usually stored in wax lined glasses or plastic containers. It is stored in these to prevent it from decomposing.


Hydrogen peroxide is a bleaching agent which has both oxidizing and reducing capacity. Its Lewis structure, bond angle, shape and Hybridization explained in this article. It is sometimes corrosive to skin and certain metals but found application in various fields.

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